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Important Questions Class 12 Physics Chapter 13 Nuclei

Important questions for class 12 physics chapter 13 nuclei are provided in this article. Students can benefit from these questions as they relate to the CBSE physics exam pattern. Students can also use these questions for a quicker revision of Chapter 12 Nuclei. There are most chances that these questions can be asked in the exam hence, students must practice them thoroughly. Given below are the multiple choice, short, and long-type important questions for Class 12 Physics Chapter 13 nuclei.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What is the fundamental force responsible for holding the nucleus of an atom together?
A) Gravitational force
B) Electromagnetic force
C) Strong nuclear force
D) Weak nuclear force
Answer: C) Strong nuclear force
Reason: The strong nuclear force is the dominant force that binds protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

2. Which subatomic particle is responsible for the stability of the nucleus by balancing the repulsive forces between protons?
A) Neutron
B) Proton
C) Electron
D) Positron
Answer: A) Neutron
Reason: Neutrons, being neutral, help counteract the repulsive forces between positively charged protons in the nucleus.

3. What is the term for the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom?
A) Atomic number
B) Mass number
C) Isotopic number
D) Nuclear charge
Answer: B) Mass number
Reason: The mass number represents the sum of protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus.

4. Which type of radioactive decay involves the emission of an alpha particle from a nucleus?
A) Alpha decay
B) Beta decay
C) Gamma decay
D) Electron capture
Answer: A) Alpha decay
Reason: Alpha decay releases an alpha particle (helium nucleus) from a radioactive nucleus.

5. What is the term for the process where a neutron decays into a proton, electron, and antineutrino?
A) Alpha decay
B) Beta-plus decay
C) Beta-minus decay
D) Gamma decay
Answer: C) Beta-minus decay
Reason: Beta-minus decay involves the conversion of a neutron into a proton, electron, and antineutrino.

6. Which type of radiation has the lowest penetration power among alpha, beta, and gamma radiation?
A) Alpha
B) Beta
C) Gamma
D) Neutron
Answer: A) Alpha
Reason: Alpha radiation consists of heavy, charged particles with low penetration ability.

7. What is the term for the spontaneous splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei?
A) Fusion
B) Fission
C) Decay
D) Transmutation
Answer: B) Fission
Reason: Nuclear fission involves the division of a heavy nucleus into smaller fragments, releasing energy.

8. Which process involves changing one element into another by bombarding a target nucleus with high-energy particles?
A) Fusion
B) Fission
C) Decay
D) Transmutation
Answer: D) Transmutation
Reason: Transmutation refers to the conversion of one element into another through nuclear reactions.

9. What is the term for the spontaneous emission of high-energy photons from an excited atomic nucleus?
A) Alpha decay
B) Beta decay
C) Gamma decay
D) Electron capture
Answer: C) Gamma decay
Reason: Gamma decay releases gamma rays from an unstable nucleus to reach a lower energy state.

10. Which subatomic particle is exchanged between two nuclei during a nuclear reaction to maintain charge balance?
A) Proton
B) Neutron
C) Electron
D) Positron
Answer: A) Proton
Reason: Protons are exchanged to balance charges in nuclear reactions while maintaining overall charge neutrality.

Short Answers Type Questions

Ques: What is a nucleus?
Answer: The nucleus is the central core of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.

Ques: What is nuclear fusion?
Answer: Nuclear fusion is the process of combining atomic nuclei to release energy.

Ques: What is nuclear fission?
Answer: Nuclear fission is the process of splitting atomic nuclei to release energy.

Ques: What is radioactivity?
Answer: Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation from an unstable atomic nucleus.

Ques: What is a radioactive decay?
Answer: Radioactive decay is the process by which unstable nuclei transform into more stable forms by emitting radiation.

Ques: What is a half-life?
Answer: Half-life is the time it takes for half of a radioactive substance to decay into a more stable form.

Ques: What is a nuclear reaction?
Answer: A nuclear reaction involves changes in the composition or structure of atomic nuclei, resulting in the release of energy.

Ques: What are isotopes in relation to nuclei?
Answer: Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, leading to variations in atomic mass and stability.

Ques: What is the significance of the strong nuclear force in holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus?
Answer: The strong nuclear force is crucial for overcoming the electromagnetic repulsion between positively charged protons within the nucleus. This force binds protons and neutrons together, creating stable atomic nuclei. Without the strong nuclear force, nuclei would disintegrate due to the repulsive forces between protons.

Ques: How does the concept of nuclear binding energy relate to the stability of atomic nuclei?
Answer: Nuclear binding energy represents the energy required to keep protons and neutrons bound in the nucleus. Higher binding energies indicate greater stability, as they reflect the strength of the nuclear forces holding the nucleus together. Nuclei with high binding energies are less likely to undergo nuclear reactions or decay, making them more stable and long-lasting.

Ques: What role do isotopes play in nuclear science and research?
Answer: Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. They provide valuable insights into nuclear structure, stability, and behavior. Radioactive isotopes, in particular, are used in various applications such as radiometric dating, medical diagnostics, and industrial processes. Studying isotopes helps scientists understand nuclear properties and track chemical reactions.

Ques: How do advancements in nuclear physics contribute to technological innovations and scientific discoveries?
Answer: Progress in nuclear physics has led to significant technological advancements and scientific breakthroughs. Nuclear technologies are used in energy production, medical imaging, radiation therapy, and material analysis. Understanding nuclear reactions, decay processes, and atomic structure has paved the way for innovations in diverse fields, shaping modern society and expanding our knowledge of the universe.

Long Answers Type Questions

Ques: What is the role of the nucleus in an atom, and how does it contribute to the overall structure of an atom?
Answer: The nucleus is the central core of an atom containing protons and neutrons. It plays a vital role in determining an element’s identity and properties. Protons, with their positive charge, contribute to the atom’s overall positive charge, while neutrons help stabilize the nucleus. Most of the atom’s mass is concentrated in the nucleus, with electrons orbiting around it at specific energy levels. This compact, dense structure is essential for maintaining the stability and integrity of the atom.

Ques: How do protons and neutrons interact within the nucleus, and what forces are at play to keep them together?
Answer: Protons and neutrons interact within the nucleus through the strong nuclear force, which overcomes the electromagnetic repulsion between positively charged protons. This force binds the nucleons (protons and neutrons) together, creating a stable nucleus. The strong nuclear force is one of the four fundamental forces in nature, along with gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak nuclear force. It acts over short distances within the nucleus, holding the protons and neutrons together and giving rise to nuclear binding energy.

Ques: What is nuclear binding energy, and how does it relate to the stability of atomic nuclei?
Answer: Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to keep protons and neutrons bound together in the nucleus. It represents the difference in energy between the mass of an atomic nucleus and the sum of the masses of its individual protons and neutrons. A higher binding energy indicates greater stability of the nucleus. Nuclei with high binding energies are less likely to undergo nuclear reactions or decay, making them more stable. Understanding nuclear binding energy is essential for studying nuclear structure, stability, and reactions.

Ques: How do isotopes contribute to our understanding of atomic nuclei, and what role do they play in nuclear science?
Answer: Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. They provide valuable insights into nuclear structure, stability, and behavior. Isotopes with unstable nuclei, known as radioactive isotopes, undergo radioactive decay, emitting radiation in the process. This property is utilized in various fields such as medicine, industry, and research. By studying isotopes, scientists can investigate nuclear properties, track chemical reactions, and develop applications like radiometric dating and medical imaging.

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